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Producer-consumer model is very helpful to decouple the system components. However, the situation is quite often in which producer produces jobs more rapidly than consumers can consume them. It's a challenge to manage a large number of unconsumed jobs.

Circuit Breaker


In a distributed system, an application often has at least one upstream system. When upstream is overloaded, or doomed to fail, the application is very likely to be bogged down as well. Such circumstance is called cascading failure.

As an example, we have an application requiring a remote service …