The Landscape of Cloud Native Application


After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Understand the relationship between Cloud Native Application and its underlying technologies.
  • Understand the advantages and disadvantages of Cloud Native Application.
  • Understand the life cycle of a Cloud Native Application.

Cloud Native technology empowers organizations to build and run scalable applications in modern, dynamic environments such as public, private, and hybrid clouds. Containers, service meshes, microservices, immutable infrastructure, and declarative APIs exemplify this approach. The Cloud Native Application has become the next generation technology that programmers and managers have to know about.

What is Cloud Native Application?

Here is a general definition from Wikipedia.

[Cloud Native Application is] a type of computer software that natively utilizes services and infrastructure provided by cloud computing providers.

The Cloud native application runs as microservices using an open source software stack, each part of which are packaged into its own container. From a systematic perspective, these individual parts are dynamically orchestrated. The Cloud Native approach has changed the industry and the way people think of the application development and operations. The application running on the cloud computing platform does not necessarily to be a Cloud Native Application, although cloud computing platform provides a lot of infrastructure helping applications being Cloud Native. By providing nearly limitless computer power and on-demand provisions, the cloud computing platform has helped the Cloud Native Application deliver to market faster and run more stable.

For example, a startup company decides to push a new software product to the market. The engineers took one month building a prototype running by docker in local development environment. Next, they launches a Kubernetes cluster on cloud computing platform, such as Amazon EKS, Azure Kubernetes Service, Google Kubernetes Engine, etc. Then, they deploy the application as microservices to the Kubernetes cluster, which runs as the exact the same thing as they build in development environment. With more and more consumers start using the product, these smart engineers scale their product for more traffics in 30 seconds. Again, there is no modification in the application. Failures might happen, and thus application crash. Fortunately, the Kubernetes cluster can automatically bring the application back to life and happy customers. With all these happening, both the technology stack remains the same and drives the company growing.

Why use Cloud Native Application?

Cost Less

There are two basic kinds of costs in business, capital expenses and operational expenses, the former of which includes equipment and cloud resources in order to operate the service, and the latter of which includes people and consumable goods. Cloud Native Application reduces the capital expenses as it runs on cheap computing powers and outsources the maintenance of these computing resources to dedicated commercial vendors.

The amount of operational expenses varies depending on which kind of cloud resources are consumed. Function-as-a-service is usually the cheapest, for example, the monthly compute price of AWS Lambda is $0.00001667 per GB-s and the free tier provides 400,000 GB-s. The monthly request price is $0.20 per 1 million requests and the free tier provides 1M requests per month. Platform-as-a-service and Infrastructure-as-a-service usually cost more, but it also brings better performance and finer-grain control. Nonetheless, all these technologies that Cloud Native Application relies on cost less than building multiple-regional data centers, not to mention the human resource on maintaining them. More importantly, the cloud resources are provisioned on demands. It means business owners doesn't need to overpay the resources. Moving from capital expenses towards operational expenses creates a smoother cash flow for business operations.

Dedicated Microservices

Microservices architecture is an architectural style that runs an application as a fleet of services that are loosely coupled, highly maintainable and testable. The Cloud Native Application is naturally affiliated to microservices architecture.

Typically, A Cloud Native Application can have an ingress that dispatches traffic to frontend microservice. Then, the frontend microservice goes through a service mesh to look up and establish connections to backend microservices for remote procedure control (RPC). The backend microservices can have a chain of services dependencies. Eventually, the data are persisted into storages or databases. What's more, the application can take event sourcing practice by sending messages asynchronously to other microservices.

The Cloud Native Application shares the benefits of microservices architecture:

  • It enables continuous integration and continuous delivery for a large and complex application.
  • Each microservice is relatively small and hence has an easy to understand problem domain.
  • Each team can dedicate to one or several microservices.

Full Observability

Observability is a relatively new tech word but not a new concept. It was originally from the world of engineering and control theory. Observability is a measure of how well internal states of a system can be inferred from knowledge of its external outputs. A Cloud Native Application treats observability as first citizen. Every container can expose its readiness and liveness information to a central metric collecting system. As more containerized workloads added into the microservices architecture, it's essential to provide a full observability to the application to better understand the performance and reliability.

There are three major elements in terms of observability: logs, metrics, and traces. Logs are a verbose representation of event records. Metrics could be counters, gauges, or histograms as time series data. Traces are expansions of user requests across all microservices components. By combining all these information into queries and dashboards, the Cloud Native Application makes operations friendly and fun.


Resilience means a system can stay responsive when failure occurs. It applies to both the application and its underlying infrastructure. Cloud Native Application is in nature containerized, replicated, and isolated, so failures are contained within a well-defined boundary, isolating from other components and prevent compromising the system as a whole. Cloud Native Application can be automatically recovered by exposing the monitoring information and the full life cycle of each container to an orchestrator, such as Kubernetes master, which is also high available. By providing isolation and auto recovery, the client of a Cloud Native Application is not bogged down by a portion of system failures.

For example, a Cloud Native Application runs on three nodes. All of a sudden, one of the three nodes crashed due to the disk out of warranty. Though the application is not impacted, as all of the microservices that run on this node has replications on the other two nodes. Later on, the business owner decides to decommission the node and add a new host to the cluster. The system senses it and automatically deploy some replicas of the microservices to the new host. With all these happening, the Cloud Native Application responds to clients without a hitch.


There are two ways of scaling, meaning to let application serve for more traffic, vertical scaling and horizontal scaling. Vertical scaling means you scale by adding more resource to an existing machine whereas horizontal scaling means you scale by adding more nodes into a pool of resources. Cloud Native Application is in favor of horizontal scaling since it has greater scalability. Vertical scaling is typically costly and still has a scaling ceiling.

To summarize, the pros of Cloud Native are:

  • Cost less. Allocate sufficient cloud resources just as you need.
  • In favor of microservices architecture.
  • Getting full observability on every components in the system.
  • Resilient environments: a Cloud Native application can handle well from failure.
  • Automatically scale up and down.

The Life-Cycle of Cloud Native Application

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Demonstrate in Development Environment

Deliver Containers to Production Environment

Container Orchestration Occupies the Rest

Challenges Introduced by Cloud Native Application


There is no free lunch (NFL).

Data Persistence

The database and storage of the Cloud Native Application needs persistency, very much unlike ephemeral containers. Containers can be killed and then relaunched very quickly, but the databases and storage servers should remain stable. The database service can be run as a container, but after killed, it should make sure the data does still exist.

Data gravity is another challenge. Cloud vendors are very keen to let customers migrate data into their data services, but not for getting data out. Comparing to checking data in, it might take several times of money to migrate data out, mainly due to limited bandwidth and heavy latency.


A Cloud Native Application is usually deployed to standalone microservices across multiple regions. When communicating over distances measured in continent level, the time it takes remote procedure calls is dramatically increased.

The Round Trip Time (RTT) to complete any transaction adds up to the call chain.

Data replication and sharding also hits latency problem.

Cloud Services

A Cloud Native Application might depends on a set of cloud services, some of which could be commercial services. It's not a easy thing to replicate these services into a local running container in the development environment. There are some great software like minio, a replacement for S3, but it's unlikely we can port a full list of cloud-compatible services into local. To solve this, we must acknowledge the fact and figure out how to make a mock service when doing end-to-end testing.


The security is always a big issue that should be considered in every corner of the system. A Cloud Native Application might depends on a public Kubernetes API endpoint that is provided by cloud vendors. A research reveals hundreds of Kubernetes administration consoles accessible over the internet without any password protection. For example, hackers found Telsa's Kubernetes console which was not password protected and injected crypto mining applications into the cluster.

Beyond credentials, encryption is also a must-have option. Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) should be used, rather than HTTP. Similarly, Secure WebSockets (wss) should be used, rather than plain WebSockets.

To summarize, Cloud Native Application is facing below challenges:

  • The data persistence is hard.
  • The latency of microservices architecture is unavoidable.
  • Replicating the cloud into local development is hard.
  • Security should be a concern.