The Architecture of SQLAlchemy
Interacting with the databases involves the executions of SQL expressions. In early days, people manipulate through raw SQL strings. However, it has several disadvantages.
- It needs different database drivers.
- There are various SQL dialects, that is, these SQL expressions might look different in different databases.
- String manipulation increases security risk, for example, SQL injection.
- SQL operations are low-level operations.
Therefore, SQLAlchemy as a database toolkit and object-relational mapping (ORM) for Python emerged.
SQLAlchemy as a database toolkit means it exposes a consistent API throughout various databases so that you now don't need to care database drivers, SQL dialects, SQL injection, etc.
SQLAlchemy as an ORM means it exposes a model-based API atop database tables so that you don't need to think about the database at all most of the times but to focus on your business logic.
Core v/s ORM
SQLAlchemy has three layers above the database.
- ORM, the top layer.
- Core, the middle layer.
- DBAPI, the lowest layer.
DBAPI is the Python Database API, which standardizes the functions and errors to communicate with databases.
It's not part of SQLAlchemy but is essential for SQLAlchemy to connect to different databases.
The engine maintains the
Connection to the databases. It also manages
Dialect, which reflect the differences among databases.
The compiler compiles Python expressions into SQL strings. For example, the compiler compiles code
User.query.filter(username='enqueuezero') to SQL string
SELECT * FROM user WHERE username = 'enqueuezero'.
SQL has dialects. For example, you can query
SELECT json_each (info) FROM orders; from a PostgreSQL but will get a syntax error from MySQL.
SQLAlchemy compiler has in-built dialect system letting you write queries in a consistency Pythonic way.
The schemas define tables and columns in the database. In SQLAlchemy, you can define the table as a
Table object, within which you can define
Column fields. In addition, you can define
Index for SQL index,
UniqueConstraint for SQL unique constraint.
SQLAlchemy gets an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) by analyzing the Python expressions for the queries.
In SQLAlchemy, the table definition and the object model are separate. Therefore, after we define the table, and the model class, we need to combine them via a
Session maintains all model objects in memory. When they get dirty, meaning we have CRUD operations, the
Session either flush them into the database or retrieve new data loading into memory. In another word, the
Session is the place where you perform ORM database operations.
- SQLAlchemy Core provides a toolkit of connection pooling, SQL construction, and execution.
- SQLAlchemy ORM provides a comprehensive way to transform between raw data and object.
You can certainly choose not to use SQLAlchemy ORM piece if you don't like it. Even only using SQLAlchemy Core can ease your development.
- SQLAlchemy exposes
create_engineas the entry point for the library. All functionality begins by creating an Engine.
- To support various databases,
create_engineidentity the database driver by a string DSN parameter. For example, to support MySQL, you can use
create_engien("mysql://user:pass@host/name"). The configurations of SQLAlchemy are sending as keyword arguments.
Enginemaintains a pool of
Connection, in each one of which you can execute transactions, set isolation levels, etc. Especially, the
executemethod is where
Compilerconstructs raw SQL query strings.
Enginealso has an important field
dialectwhich delegate many
Enginefunctions to the designated database you passing in, for example,
create_engine("sqlite://")will load module
sqlalchemy.dialects.sqlite. Each dialect module implements subtle differences across various databases.
- It's unfair not to mention
ResultProxy-- the return value of
execute. For better performance, it's implemented in C module
sqlalchemy/cextention/resultproxy.c. It makes a massive amount of object allocations and deallocations faster and more efficient.
SQLAlchemy might be the best ORM software in the Python world regardless of your taste. Though you need to learn several fundamental concepts, it's still easy to use. If you're writing a Web application and needs to manipulate data with databases, SQLAlchemy is always a strong candidate.